What is Pilot?

The Pilot Benchmark Framework provides a tool (bench) and a library (libpilot) to automate computer performance measurement tasks. This is a project under active development. The project is designed to answer questions like these that rise often from performance measurement:

  • How long shall I run this benchmark to get a precise result?

  • Is this new scheduler really 3% faster than our old one or is that a measurement error?

  • Which setting is faster for my database, 20 worker threads or 25 threads?

Our design goals include:

  • Be as intelligent as possible so users do not have to go through rigorous statistics or computer science training.

  • Results must be statistical valid (accurate, precise, and repeatable).

  • Using the shortest possible time.

To achieve these goals Pilot has the following functions:

  • Automatically deciding what statistical analysis method is suitable based on system configuration, measuring requirements, and existing results.

  • Deciding the shortest length for running a benchmark to achieve the desired measurement goal such as confidence interval.

  • Save the test results in a standard format for sharing and comparing results.

  • And much more…

To learn how to use Pilot, please head to the Tutorials.

Pilot is written in C++ for doing fast in place analysis. It is released in dual BSD 3-clause and GPLv2+ license. Currently it compiles on major Linux distros and Mac OS X.

Our recommended channel for support is Slack: http://ascar-slack-signup.stamplayapp.com/. You can also use the following mailing lists:

Why Should I Try Pilot?

Everyone needs to do performance measurement from time to time: home users need to know their Internet speed, an engineer may need to figure out the bottleneck of a system, a researcher may need to calculate the performance improvement of a new algorithm. Yet not everyone has received rigorous training in statistics and computer performance evaluation. That is one of the re why we can find many incomplete or irreplicable benchmark results, even in peer-reviewed scientific publications. A widely reported study published in Science [osc:science15] found that 60% of the psychology experiments could not be replicated. Computer science cannot afford to be complacent. Torsten Hoefle and Roberto Belli analyzed 95 papers from HPC-related conferences and discovered that most papers are flawed in experimental design or analyses [hoefler:sc15].

Basically, if any published number is derived from fewer than 20 samples, or is presented as a mean without variance or confidence interval (CI), the authors are likely doing it wrong. The following problems can often be found in published results:

  • Imprecise: the result may not be a good approximation of the “real” value; often caused by failing to consider the width of CI and not collecting enough samples.

  • Inaccurate: the result may not reflect what you need to measure; often caused by hidden bottleneck in the system.

  • Ignoring the overhead: not measuring or documenting the measurement and instrumentation overhead.

  • Presenting improvements or comparisons without providing the p-value: this makes it impossible to know how reliable the improvements are.

Time is another limiting factor. People usually do not allocate a lot of time to performance evaluation or tuning, yet few newly designed or deployed systems can meet the expected performance without a length tuning process. A large part of the tuning process is spent on running customer’s benchmark workloads for model construction or testing candidate parameters. Designers are usually given only a few days for these tasks and have to rush the results by cutting corners, which often leads to unreliable benchmark results and sub-optimal system tuning decisions.

We want to improve this process by getting statistical valid results in a short time. We begin with a high level overview of what analytical methods are necessary to generate results that meet the statistical requirements, then design heuristic methods to automate and accelerate them. We cover methods to measure and correct the autocorrelation of samples, to use t-distribution to estimate the optimal test duration from existing samples, to detect the duration of the warm-up and cool-down phases, to detect shifts of mean in samples, and to use t-test to estimate the optimal test duration for comparing benchmark results. In addition to these heuristics, we also propose two new algorithms: a simple and easy-to-use linear performance model that makes allowance for warm-up and cool-down phases using only total work amount and workload duration, and a method to detect and measure the system’s performance bottleneck while keeping the overhead within an acceptable range.

To encourage people to use these methods, we implement them in Pilot, which can automate many performance evaluation tasks based on real-time time series analytical results, and can help people who have insufficient statistics knowledge to get good performance results. Pilot can also free experienced researchers from painstakingly executing benchmarks so they can get scientifically correct results using the shortest possible time.


Torsten Hoefle and Roberto Belli. Scientific benchmarking of parallel computing systems. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC15), 2015.


Open Science Collaboration. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251), 2015.